Low blood pressure or hypotension

Author: Imran Khan
Low blood pressure, also known as 'hypotension'. For many people, low blood pressure can cause symptoms dizziness and fainting, or mean that people have serious heart, endocrine or neurological systems. Very low blood pressure can deprive the brain and other vital organs of oxygen and nutrients, leading to life-threatening condition called shock.

Although the pressure varies with each person, blood pressure 90 mm Hg or lower systolic blood pressure (the top level of blood pressure) or 60 mmHg or less diastolic blood pressure (lower level), as a rule is considered as hypotension.
Low blood pressure is treatable, but it is important to find out what is causing your hypotension, so that it can be treated properly.

·    Systolic pressure. Superior blood pressure is the pressure that the heart generates when pumping blood through the arteries to the rest of the body.
·    Diastolic blood pressure. Lower blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats.

Normal blood pressure is 120/80 (115/75)
Although readings of blood pressure can be accurate at any given time but blood pressure not always remains constant. It can vary significantly in a short period of time – depending on body position, breathing rhythm, physical condition, medications, what you eat and drink, and even time of day. Blood pressure is usually lowest at night and rises sharply on waking.

If you measure your blood pressure, at least one of the options included in the lower range, your blood pressure is below normal. In other words, if your systolic pressure is the perfect 115 or 120 and diastolic blood pressure 50 mm Hg, we can assume that this is lower than normal pressure.
The sudden drop in blood pressure can be dangerous. Modified only by 20 mmHg - For example,   reducing from 130 to 110 systolic blood pressure – can cause dizziness and fainting when the brain is not getting enough blood.

Athletes and people who exercise regularly tend to lower blood pressure and the rhythm of the heart than people who do not exercise regularly.
But in some rare instances, low blood pressure may be a sign of serious, even life-threatening diseases.

Hypotension causes

·    Pregnancy: In the first 24 weeks of pregnancy, systolic pressure commonly drops by 5 – 10 points and diastolic blood pressure by 10 – 15 points. This is normal, and blood pressure usually returns to pre-pregnancy level after delivery.
·    Heart problems. Some heart diseases – heart valve disease, myocardial infarction and heart failure. These conditions can cause low blood pressure, since they impede blood flow through your body.
·    Endocrine problems. Hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism) or hyperactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) can cause low blood pressure. Adrenal insufficiency (Addison\'s disease), low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and in some cases, diabetes can cause hypotension.
·    Dehydration. When you have dehydration, your body loses a lot of water. Even mild dehydration can cause weakness, dizziness and fatigue. Fever, vomiting, severe diarrhea, abuse of diuretics and strenuous exercise can all lead to dehydration.

Far more serious is hypovolemic shock, a life-threatening complication of dehydration. It occurs when low blood volume causes a sudden drop in blood pressure and reducing the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues. If untreated, severe hypovolemic shock, death is inevitable within a few minutes or hours.
·    Blood loss. The loss of large amounts of blood from severe trauma or internal bleeding reduces the amount of blood in the body, which leads to a sharp drop in blood pressure.
·    Severe infections (sepsis). Sepsis can occur when an infection in the organism enters the bloodstream. Sepsis can lead to life-threatening drop in blood pressure called septic shock.
·    Severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis). Anaphylaxis is a serious and potentially life-threatening reaction. Triggered by – foods, certain medications, insect venoms Anaphylaxis can cause breathing problems, rashes, itching, swelling of the throat and falling blood pressure.
·    Lack of nutrients in your diet. Lack of vitamin B-12 and folic acid can lead to anemia, a condition where your body does not produce enough red blood cells, which leads to hypotension.

Medicines that can cause low blood pressure
·    Diuretics ( diuretic )
·    Alpha-blockers
·    Beta-blockers
·    Drugs for Parkinson\'s disease
·    Some types of antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants)
·    nitroglycerin

Types of low blood pressure
·    Orthostatic hypotension. The fall in blood pressure   occurs suddenly when you stand up from a sitting position, or if you go after the lying position. Usually, gravity causes blood to accumulate in the legs when you stand. Your body compensates by increasing heart rate and constricts blood vessels, thereby providing adequate return of blood to your brain. But some people, this compensatory mechanism does not work and blood pressure drops, which leads to symptoms of dizziness, blurred vision and even fainting.

Orthostatic hypotension can occur for various reasons, including against dehydration, prolonged bed rest, pregnancy, diabetes, heart problems, burns, excessive heat, varicose veins. Some drugs can also cause hypotension, particularly drugs used to treat high blood pressure – diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and angiotensin -converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors – as well as antidepressants and drugs used to treat the disease Parkinson and erectile dysfunction.

·    Low blood pressure after eating (postprandial hypotension). Postprandial Hypotension – sudden drop in blood pressure after meals. It occurs mainly in older people.
Just as gravity pulls blood to your feet while you stand, a large volume of blood flows to the digestive tract after eating. Normally, your body counteracts this by increasing heart rate and spasm of certain blood vessels that help maintain normal blood pressure. But some people, these mechanisms fail, leading to vertigo, dizziness and fainting. Decreasing the amount of carbohydrates in the diet can help reduce symptoms.
·    Low blood pressure and brain lesions (CNS mediated hypotension).

CNS-mediated hypotension mainly affects young people, and it seems to occur because of an imbalance between the heart and brain.
Hypotension Symptoms
For some people, low blood pressure may signal an underlying problem, especially when it drops suddenly or is accompanied by symptoms:
·    Dizziness
·    Swoon
·    Blurred vision
·    Nausea
·    Cold, clammy, pale skin
·    Frequent, shallow breathing
·    Fatigue
·    Depression
·    Thirst
When to seek medical advice
In many cases, low blood pressure is not life threatening. If you have a low-pressure well-being, your doctor may simply monitor your health. Nevertheless, it is important to consult a doctor if you experience any signs or symptoms of hypotension because they sometimes can indicate more serious problems.

Risk Factors
Low pressure (hypotension) may occur at any age, there are some risk factors:
·    Age. Most adults over 65 years. Orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension. CNS-mediated hypotension happens as a result of an imbalance between the brain and heart, primarily affects children and young adults.
·    Medications. People, who take certain medications, have a higher risk of low blood pressure. This is especially true of adults older than 80 years.
·    Some of the disease. Parkinson\'s disease, diabetes and some heart disease.
Even moderate forms of low blood pressure can cause not only dizziness and weakness, and fainting, and consequently the risk of injury from falls. And very low blood pressure, for whatever reason, can deprive your body of enough oxygen to perform their normal functions, resulting in damage to the heart and brain.
Hypotonia diagnosis and treatment

Hypotension diagnosis
The purpose of the diagnosis at reduced pressure is to find a cause that helps determine the appropriate treatment. For diagnosis, the doctor may recommend one or more of the following tests:
·    Measurement of pressure tonometer. Blood pressure is measured by a tonometer, an inflatable cuff and meter. Figures blood pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), has two indicators. The first or top row of pressure in the arteries when your heart beats (systolic pressure). The second, or below, a number of pressure in the arteries between beats (diastolic pressure).
·    Blood tests. They can provide information about your general health, (low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia or diabetes) or a small number of red blood cells – anemia)
·    An electrocardiogram (ECG). This noninvasive test detects irregularities in heart rhythm, structural damage to the heart, and problems with the delivery of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle.
Occasionally, cardiac arrhythmias come and go, and ECG did not show any change. If this happens, you may ask that you wore 24-hour Holter monitor, it records the electrical activity of the heart all day while you\'re driving a normal life.
·    Echocardiogram. It is a safe method, which includes ultrasound of the heart, which shows detailed images of the heart.
·    Stress test.
·    Valsalva test. This   test checks the functioning of your autonomic nervous system. Investigate the change of your heart rate and blood pressure after several cycles of deep breathing.

Hypotension Treatment
Low blood pressure that does not cause any signs or symptoms, or causes only mild symptoms, such as brief episodes of vertigo, rarely requires treatment. If you have symptoms, the primary treatment depends on oglavnoy causes, and doctors usually try to solve the main problem – dehydration, heart failure, diabetes or hypothyroidism. If hypotension caused by medications, treatment usually involves changing the dose or stop using it completely.

If it is not clear what causes low pressure or no effective treatment, the main objective is to increase blood pressure and reduce symptoms.  Depending on your age, health status changed from low blood pressure, you can in several ways:

·    Use more salt. Experts usually recommend limiting the amount of salt in the diet, because salt can raise blood pressure, sometimes significantly.  For people with low pressure, it can be a good thing. But as the excess sodium can lead to heart failure, particularly in old age, it is very important to consult a physician before raising the salt in your diet.
·    Drink more water. While almost everyone can use this rule, it is enough to drink lots of water; this is especially true if you have low blood pressure. Fluid increases blood volume and prevent dehydration, both factors are important in the treatment of hypotension.
·    Use of compression stockings. Elastic stockings commonly used to reduce pain and swelling of varicose veins, helps reduce blood in the legs.
·    Drugs. Some drugs   can be used to treat low blood pressure.
·    Drink more water, less alcohol. Alcohol is dehydrating and can lower blood pressure, even if you drink in moderation. Water, on the other hand, is struggling with dehydration and increases blood volume.
·    Proper nutrition. Get all the nutrients needed for good health, focusing on the variety of foods, including whole grains, fruits, vegetables and lean chicken and fish.
·    Slowly change the position of the body. You can reduce the dizziness that comes with the pressure drop after the transition to a vertical position, having made slow recovery. Before you get out of bed in the morning, take deep breaths for several minutes and then slowly sit up, and then stand up. Head end of your bed can be given greater status, which may also help fight the effects of pressure drop.
Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com

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